The only papyrus from Romania, discovered 53 (1959 I mean) years ago is written in old Greek. It is unique because it is whole. It dates from IV Century before Jesus. The place ? The Mangalia Resort , Statiunea balneo-climaterica Mangalia . It was transported in the Russian State of the UdSSR, in the same year for restauration and conservation . But in the summer of 2011 it was returned to the officials of The Archaeological Museum of Mangalia , Muzeul de Arheologie Callatis din Mangalia.
Callatis – the story of a city
Whether called Cerbatis or Acervatis, Callatis Pangalia, Mankalia or Mangalia, geographical position of this place always sat in the middle of history. He became the oldest known settlement in the country, while the scene of political, economic social and very important, which generated over time change of identity, without affecting the essence of place: a bit of brilliance Greek, a littlethe joy of glory, a bit of spiritual strength and a touch of deep Turkish Romanian wisdom associated with a sense of introspection. A unique rainbow sky Balkans, where each color is well individualized, but inseparable, in fact.
Callatis – the most beautiful
First settled here were Thracians, founding the settlement known as Acervatis or Cerbatis. Thracian settlements in the former, the Greeks landed here will build the city which would remain in history as the Callatis, famous for its material and spiritual prosperity, but also for famous scholars whom he sheltered from its walls.
The late fourth century BC Inteimeiata, by the people Heracleea Pontic, located on the Asian side of the Black Sea, the city was named in memory of Calesa river that surrounds land Heracleea metropolis. Predicting an oracle was the one who was in the building Callatis, the city that would become in a short time, one of the strongest in the area, but at the same time, and one of the richest.
Advantageous geographical position immediately convinced of the desirability of building on Greek settlement in this place: locked and access to a freshwater lake (now Lake Mangalia), fertile land, an advantageous military position, however confirm the vision oracle, who guided the Greeks to the ground. Unlike the other two cities, Tomis and Histria Milesian colony, mainly commercial and democratic, was the only colony Callatis Doriana, practicing agriculture and a leading oligarchic rather than democratic, where power was held only a few families. Even so, Callatis the saw in a very short time success. Cereals and maritime trade were two of the sources that provided the city a wellspring of wealth.
A situation could not have flourished as not to attract neighbors envy.Throughout its history, the city was placed numerous times in the face of strong sieges. But who was to submit its Pontic allies with Macedonian domination, lasted five years, from 313 until 308 BC They became free from the death of King Lysimachus conqueror, in 281 BC A long siege was not so as not to put their mark on the settlement, but again, the city was rebuilt quickly, quickly going through the steps of material wealth and cultural.
Around 262 i.e.n. Tomis Fortress began. Frightened by the idea of competition, the locals tried sabotaging construction, but experienced a resounding defeat of the Byzantine war fleet, came to help tomitanilor. Just like Phoenix, the city has returned shortly, keeping the head still for a while in the cities located on the shores of Black Sea, Pontus.
Romanian period that followed brought more prosperity to the city, now occupying the second position, after Tomis. Under the reign of Emperor Diocletian (284-305 AD) Constantine the Great (306-337 AD), then under Anastasius (491-518 AD) and Justinian (527-565 AD) , the city flourishes. I built new buildings, is created first bishop and resume trade. The two cities have full advantage of favorable business conditions from the Roman Empire created.
Cultural life in the city
Many residents of the city account free of material concerns were dedicated to the cause of spiritual ministry. At that time, the famous ancient geographer, Demetrios of Callatis developed a documented geographical work on Asia and Europe, contained in 20 books. This space inspired and playwright Istros of Callatis in writing a beautiful book about the tragedy. Another scholar originally from Callatis is Satyr, who lived in Egypt, where he wrote a book that was preserved in a fragment, “Life of Euripides.” History Laertiu Diogenes speaks in his writings about Heraclid philosopher (170-146 BC), a native of Callatis, who lived in Egypt at the court of King Ptolemy, during which he wrote six books about succession in time of philosophers about lembeutic reasoning.
The first coins minted here dates from around 300 BC, were made of silver and were represented on one side the head of Heracles, and the other, symbols of the city: quiver, bow, stand on end and ears of wheat. Later came bronze coins, which reproduce on the obverse images of the gods Dionysus, Apollo, Athena, Hermes, Demeter, and the reverse short city name, or Kala Kalla.
Avar invasion towards the end of the fifth century e.n. would finally put an end to one of the most beautiful and prosperous cities of Pontus Euxin. Powerful fortress settlement has become a simple port, which has kept for long look left.Mention of a map of Pisa, which dates from the twelfth century, as the settlement revive Pancalia Pangalia or equivalent in Byzantine Greek for “Callatis’ Greek classic, translated as” the beautiful “. Two centuries later, a French traveler, Walerand of Wawrin, mentions a port that you called Pangu built on the former cities Callatis. Commercial function of the port began to fade and the first mention of the settlement as the Mankalia is made in 1593 by Paolo Giorgi. Another seventeenth-century explorer, this time Turkish Evlia Celebi, speaks Mankalia as one of the largest ports in Dobrogea.
Intellectual bohemian refuge
Since then, the settlement went through several transformations, but not always the most happily. In the last century, the city was preferred by Romanian artists, who went bohemian life here in little houses and picturesque, which resonate in a space of tranquility, away from the hectic world. Manuela Cernat describes in the preface of the book “Mangalia in the pages of time” by Aurelia and Stefan Lapusan a small painting of the city after the Second World War:
“Paradoxically, in full Sovietization away from the capital, looking at the border, Mangalia still breathing and living in pre-war rate. In too brief respite to tightening the bolt, here regroup quickly banished artistic cream of Balchik. Tudoran Radu Brothers and Geo Bogza pictoritele Marcela and Florica Cordescu, Cezar Petrescu and Joseph Igirosianu novelists, actors and Radu Grigore Vasiliu Birlic Beligan, directors and Marietta Sadova Sica Alexandrescu, vocalist Stroici Manole, epigramistul Pastorel Teodoreanu and a lot of beautiful women and very elegant gave shine watch the cliff walk. ”
Callatis – card
It is the oldest city in Romania;
The area has been inhabited since prehistoric times, proof of being a Neolithic remains of material culture from Gumelnita;
The city is the only Doric colony on the shore of Pontus Euxin;
This papyrus was found only in Romania. Tomb of the papyrus was discovered in 1959, is dated in the fourth century BC Inside the tomb is built of cut stone blocks, being 1.5 meters below ground level. It is assumed that the buried here was a man of mind, and he was found near a papyrus written in Greek, first discovered in our country. There is controversy regarding this document, immediately after discovery disappeared. Due to very wet climate, the practice was abandoned very quickly scrolls the scribes of the time, they are replaced quickly scrolls much more resistant to moisture. Archaeologists feared what might happen to the papyrus, once uncovered, so they invited a Russian specialist to deal with taking it and decipher it, but once the document has made contact with light, shattered, and shattering the hopes of researchers decipher the message. But the scientist took the papyrus with him in Russia in an attempt to rehabilitate declared in the laboratory and to try decoding it, but then, no longer knows anything about this document. Some researchers have tried to learn something about the fate of papyrus and government through diplomatic channels, but their attempts were left unanswered. A Roman archaeologist has identified a history book printed in Russia a fragment of papyrus from Mangalia, which stated that it was saved, but has not been fully deciphered;
Both the inside walls of the fortress Callatis, and Roman ruins of the building can be seen near the coast town still Mangalia;
Former port city is currently covered by the sea. It was located in the south of the current port.
Some citizens were mercenaries royal Callatis in Egypt;
Under the arches of the basilica rang Callatis apparently Te Deum Laudamus first, composed of Nicetas Remesiana;
The city signed a peace treaty with Rome, currently considered the oldest known document in Latin in Eastern Europe;
In the first century AD, the city helped with money Callatis Rome;
The city is the first spa in our country, mesothermal sulfur baths are known since the time Burebista;
Under the Emperor Gordian (238-244), the first association worked Callatis hunters mentioned here, as is evident from an inscription on a marble slab, located at the Museum of Archeology in Constanta. Here were inscribed in Latin and Greek names of 43 members of the association amateur hunters, dated from III century BC;
Callatis originate from the famous scholars who lived in Hellenistic Egypt: Demetrios, Heracleides, Satyr, Istria, Thales;
Leontios Christian Byzantine scholar (485-542) was born in Zaldapa near Callatis.
The old Greek gymnasium in new profile sports, worked in the first century AD Callatis
Between the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, was part of pashalic Mangalia Rumelia, the seat of judicial districts, called “accommodate”
Sultan Mosque is the oldest Esmahan cult Muslim Romania;
Occur in 1883, Mangalia, Triangle, Journal of masonry in Romania, with the help of Constantine M. Moroiu, Grand Master of the Grand National Lodge of Romania;
Mangalia is declared in 1899 the first sea and spa resort in Romania, after laboratory tests settled as its mineral waters are sulphurous, alkaline, slightly chlorosodic and iodine.
Mangalia their walls resting on one of the richest cultural heritage, which has a value and whose immense implications, realized, would bring added value to this settlement seems always beaten, both by the wind, waves and sun. The city rests on an archaeological treasure, but few know how to live the wonder of this place blessed by history, which was one of the first centers of civilization.
He remained famous speech recorded in history held by illustrious learned Nicolae Iorga, in honor of Mangalia city. Phrase, consisting of 120 words was read in a radio broadcast “in the dark tips”:
“It was later still, the view that shore of Dobrogea, which we know so little and not include only the illusion of silver in the picturesque Balchik and a poor Tatar-Turkish race that takes the wind today, I came to appreciate, of course not trivial and lust naval health resorts, ugly icon in our times lack of modesty, but in loneliness from Mangalia, beauty series that finished in frost easy charm of the backlight, which you looks a world away, chased by the boats lights capture fishermen who catch torches and spells the glimpse from the depths and especially the thing to remember is calling this morning, in fact even more cool day, the Luceafarul that rises vioriu sky suddenly in bed, and is an awakening to new life, you have to start the deep water for residents, as well as for those who, today, on the ruins of Hellenistic cities, leading only remnant of a civilization sad and vulgar that us until today I knew it live. ”