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Tulcea is among the counties in Romania with one of the richest archeological heritage, but few sites are set up for tourist visitation.

Photo credit: (c) Luisiana BIGEA / AGERPRES ARCHIVE

The benefit of the lack of organization is the absence of an entry fee, an exception to this particularity being the medieval Citadel of Enisala, the most visited archeological site in Tulcea county. Near it, on the territory of Jurilovca commune, the citadel of Orgame/Argamum lies, the first town on Romania’s current territory. The archaeologically-important settlement was mentioned in a document in the 6th century BC, by Hecataeus of Miletus, and its history, which unfolded between the 7th century BC up until the 8th century AD, is still researched by archaeologists.

The importance of Tulcea’s archeological sites is emphasized by the fact that five of the ten Romania archeological sites that are part of “Danube Limes Brand” project’s object are in situated in northern Dobrogea. The project “Extension of the Danube Limes UNESCO World Heritage in the Lower Danube” envisages long-term and sustainable preservation of Limes sites through nominating new frontier section for World Heritage status in the Lower Danube countries and the promotion of inter-regional cooperation in developing, improving and presenting individual Limes sites.

Photo credit: (c) Luisiana BIGEA / AGERPRES PHOTO

The citadel of Aegyssus, identified and partially researched on Hora hill, is one of the citadels that make the object of the project. The first mention of the site, according to the Institute for Eco-Museological Research (ICEM), was done by Ovidius in 12 AD, when the fortress, already under Roman control, was besieged by the Geto-Dacians. The amphorae discovered in the site place the construction of the citadel at the end of the 4th century BC — early 3rd century BC. The importance of the city was highlighted by Ovidius who saw it as “the old citadel defended by strong walls, on the banks of the Danube, in a high place, hard to reach”. Between 1879 and 1899, the citadel saw the building of a monument dedicated to the heroes of the Romanian War of Independence (known in the English world as the Russo-Romanian-Turkish War of 1877), while in 1975 the County Museum of History and Archeology was opened to the public, offering visitors the possibility to know in greater detail the county’s heritage.

Photo credit: (c) Luisiana BIGEA / AGERPRES PHOTO

The Roman-Byzantine citadel of Noviodunum, another objective of the “Danube Limes Brand” project is situated near the town of Isaccea. It was here, in 2012, that ICEM archeologists discovered a Christian basilica, and in the previous year’s archeological digs — the best kept and largest kiln in Romania. Raised on an old Get settlement, the Roman and later on Byzantine citadel of Noviodunum had a military, strategic and economic role, the development of the settlement leading to the achievement of the “municipium” status at the end of the 2nd century AD. Noviodunum was the headquarters of some detachments of the legions stationed in Dobrogea and the main home of Roman fleet Classis Flavia Moesica that controlled the lower Danube and the northern and western coasts of the Black Sea. The citadel developed in stages, up until the Ottoman conquest of 1420, these stages being at times interrupted by attacks from the Pechenegs, Udi and Cumans in the 11th century AD, but also the Tatar attacks in the 13th century AD.

Photo credit: (c) Luisiana BIGEA / AGERPRES PHOTO

Another site that is eligible to enter UNESCO heritage list, the citadel of Dinogetia, is located in Jijila commune, near the road that links the cities of Tulcea and Galati, the citadel having in its vicinity a monastery dedicated to the “Life-giving Spring” (an Orthodox holiday celebrated in the first Friday after Easter, also called Bright Friday), the building of which, according to the spokesperson of the Tulcea Episcopate Niculai Felix began in 2004. “We know that in the perimeter of the citadel, in the first centuries, numerous Christians were martyred as the book “Bishop in Romania, in an epoch of national and religious conflict” signed by Roman-Catholic Bishop Raymund Netzhammer reminds us. There are also clues that besides the ones enumerated in the book, there would also be several others martyred here, like in the case of Noviodunum and the site of Halmyris”, said the spokesperson of the Tulcea Episcopate, priest Niculai Felix.

Dinogetia was a Geto-Dacian settlement, then a Roman fortress mentioned by Ptolemy, the interior of the citadel being host to several ceramic fragments unearthed that prove the existence of a Roman fortress at the site even before the reign of Diocletian (248 — 305 AD). Currently, the citadel is administered by the Romanian Academy.

Photo credit: (c) Luisiana BIGEA / AGERPRES PHOTO

In the citadel of Troesmis, situated on a stretch of land measuring 157 hectares near the village of Turcoaia, ICEM is conducting a non-invasive research project of the site. The monument, another possible candidate to the UNESCO heritage list, was first researched in the 1860’s following the initiative of France’s representative to the European Danube Commission, E. Engelhardt. “The methodology and technique of those times based on identifying and extracting inscriptions on the wall made it that extremely few carved inscriptions, descriptive and chronological in nature, see the light of day, 24 to 55 inscriptions being sampled from Troesmis”, said the Director of the County Directorate for Culture (DJC), Iulian Vizauer.

Photo credit: (c) Luisiana BIGEA / AGERPRES PHOTO

The cultural goods identified at that time are currently in France, while research at the archeological site were continued by the Romanian side in 1890, 1898, 1939 and 1977, and, according to official data, the site was along the years the target of higher-ups who wanted to transform the site in a rock quarry, or of people not knowing the site’s importance who took stones from the area to construct churches in the city of Braila, the village of Carcaliu in Tulcea or other municipal works in the area. A site included in the “Danube Limes Brand” projects, the Troesmis archeological complex, a monument of national and international importance, was one of the most important border crossings of the Roman Empire’s frontier in this part of Europe. According to the DJC, the first information on the existence of the Troesmis name came from Ovidius, in the context of troubles in 15 AD, however it cannot be determined if the name belonged to a Geto-Dacian fortification or to a village defended by an Odrysian garrison. At the end of Marcus Aurelius’ reign (161 — 180 AD), one of the settlements here reaches the rank of ‘municipium’ — the second highest rank a Roman city could gain, the highest being that of ‘colonia’. As such, the settlement had a high degree of self-government, while its citizens had a status that was close, but not equal, to that of full Roman citizens.

The citadel of Halmyris, near the Murighiol locality, situated on the banks of the Danube’s Sfantu Gheorghe Canal was inhabited by Geto-Dacians, according to ICEM, between the 6th and 5th centuries BC. At the beginning of the 2nd century AD, it became an important station for the Danube Fleet Classis Flavia Moesica, while two centuries later it became one of the 15 important cities of Scythia Minor province. One of the most important moments of this period is represented by the construction of the episcopal basilica during the reign of Constantine the Great.

In the autumn of 2001, under the altar of this monument a crypt was discovered, housing the human remains of martyrs Epictet and Astion, hidden away and protected until the raising of the basilica by Christians from the “sailors’ village”. Near the city, at the initiative of the Tomis Archbishopric, in 2005, works to raise a church dedicated to the saints began and is currently ongoing. “The church has always been connected with the nation, the history and the people in the midst of which it serves, and the foundation of a monastery is nothing more than a message of continuity, of spiritual perpetuation, of perpetuating values, history” said the spokesperson of the Tulcea Episcopate, priest Niculai Felix.

The other archaeological sites in Romania included in the “Danube Limes Brand” project are Drobeta, Sucidava-Celei, Axiopolis-Cernavoda, Capidava and Carsium-Harsova.

Over time, the cities and citadels of Tulcea county attracted the attention of specialists and tourists, but also of some diplomats. In 2013, the Ambassador of Belgium to Romania, Philippe Beke, visited the citadel of Ibida near the village of Slava Rusa and claimed that “Tulcea is one of the most sensational counties in what regards nature and historical heritage.”

Limes is the name of the fortified frontier of the former Roman Empire, that crossed, with some interruptions, almost the entirety of Europe, from the Nistru’s mouth at the Black Sea to Hadrian’s limes in modern day Scotland. The project “Danube Limes Brand” is coordinated by the University of Vienna (Austria), with representatives from Romania, Slovakia, Hungary, Italy, Bulgaria, Serbia and Croatia as partners. AGERPRES

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Many Romanian and foreign officials have visited the Danube Delta over time; many guests extolled it, but the local communities had to get along on their own over more than two decades, because there was no strategy to bring tangible benefits.

Photo credit: (c) AGERPRES ARCHIVE

More consistency in the development of settlements in the Delta could come from Integrated Territorial Investments (ITI), an area development instrument involving a strategy for a given territory, a set of feasible actions to achieve the strategy’s goals, and governance mechanisms to manage the investments.

It seems complicated, but it can merely turn into a story of simple folks, European commissioners, authorities, public servants, and strategies.

The European Commissioner for Agriculture and Rural Development Dacian Ciolos and his colleague in charge of Environment Janez Potocnik first mentioned this opportunity for the Danube Delta in September 2012, when they visited the Natural Reserve there and met authorities and NGOs. ‘The Danube Delta would be the perfect target for a multi-fund approach. All the financial and conceptual resources could merge into a local strategy devised by local authorities, so that Romania can negotiate such an approach with the European Union starting from 2014,’ Ciolos said in September 2012.

A couple of months later, Tulcea County officials started procedures with central authorities to create a dedicated fund for the Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve; the following year, World Bank experts brought in this venture by the Ministry of Regional Development met the beneficiaries of the European financial instruments; based on a strategy, money should come from 2015 on. Currently, a taskforce of the Tulcea County Council works to determine the necessary investments in the communities within the Reserve; so far, authorities say, the estimate is 500 million euros.

One of the largest sums, 100 million euros, is necessary for the modernization of approximately 800 kilometres of roads inside and outside the communes, according to Tulcea County Council Chairman Horia Teodorescu.

Photo credit: (c) Radu TUTA / AGERPRES PHOTO

Authorities already have projects for 175 kilometres of these roads. Requests exceed 6.6 million euros for the asphalt communal roads, 12.7 million euros for gravel roads, and 20 million euros for unpaved ones. Plans also include the renovation of the culture houses and sports halls in rural areas and the thermal insulation of the education units.

According to statistics dating back in 1992, the proportion of higher education staff in the Danube Delta was 50 percent below the national average, due to poor housing conditions, unfit for the aspirations and needs of some professional categories. The deficit of qualified teachers, a situation acknowledged by competent authorities, resulted in low performances of elementary school pupils, hampering their access to secondary and higher education.

The lack of boarding facilities in Sulina, for instance, or the financial insecurity of some families, especially those with many children, and the long distances to school, often traveling in very difficult conditions are some of the explanations for the modest results obtained by pupils in national examinations.

Some private tour operators got involved in the community lives and provide for transportation of children to schools in Tulcea, the county seat; other associations have rehabilitated schools in the Delta, but such actions, while definitely welcome, are sporadic. Only a long-term strategy could improve the situation. ‘Dental care practices in schools within the Reserve, renovation of educational buildings, installing boilers — here are just a few things to do for schools in the Danube Delta to optimize the teaching process conditions and get kids to enjoy coming to school,’ General Inspector Dumitru Damian detailed to AGERPRES the priorities of the County Education Inspectorate in approaching ITI.

Environmental projects are equally important to authorities, considering the triple-protected status of the Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve. Human interventions over the second half of the 20th century have disregarded the evolution of natural ecosystems, thus contributing to the unbalance of the deltaic areas, including those where the so-called natural hydrological regime was preserved, according to Professor Petre Gastescu, a founding member of the Reserve. ‘Obviously, restoring the Danube Delta to its condition before 1950, even with the ecological reconstruction of several abandoned dike enclosures, is not feasible on medium-term; probably not even on long-term, due to dikes in Danube’s meadow land, now restricting the river’s flow. The Danube has no more space to breathe, pollutants are not confined within the meadows, and communities lack fishing and recreational sites,’ the scientist explained to AGERPRES.

Although meadow dikes have a durable impact on the Danube Delta, some steps to the restoration of enclosures undergoing ecological reconstruction are still necessary. Firstly, the water circulation system should be established throughout the Delta and the nearby lake complex. Professor Gastescu compares it with the preservation of the circulatory system of the human body, to ensure its vitality.
Photo credit: (c) Cristian NISTOR / AGERPRES ARCHIVE

In 2013, environmental authorities estimated the investments for renaturation within the Reserve to nearly 457 million euros.

‘Renaturation works are vital for the Danube Delta and we focus on them because, besides preserving biodiversity, they are also beneficial for human communities; the works result in the regeneration of flora and of the fishery resources. The necessary sum is huge, but to fit within the context of this financial instrument, we have selected works amounting to 195 million euros. So fare, renaturations have been carried out depending on funding from the state budget or from European funds.

We have recently signed a contract for the renaturation of Sontea-Fortuna and Matita Merhei complexes, worth 2.7 million euros. The sum might seem hefty, but it only helps solving precise problems; this is how things went to date, with works partially responding to special circumstances, for a limited time. An approach like the ITI, allowing us to manage 100 or 200 million euros funds, would make possible the renaturation of two or three complexes of the Reservation’, the Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve Governor Edward Bratfanof mentioned.

As regards healthcare, investments are all the more necessary as tourism is Delta’s main opportunity. Although 14 healthcare points with subsidized, free, and special programme drugs were inaugurated in the Reserve since 2004 and the authorities attending the inauguration event then promised a long-term strategy for the area, one could almost count the drugstores in the Delta on the fingers of one hand. Physicians face the same issues as pharmacists under contract with the Health Insurance House.

The County Council intends to build a multifunctional centre in Sulina, modernizing and installing equipment on 1600 square meters. The list goes on with the establishment of one dispensary and the rehabilitation of other four, and with the setup of three sanitary rooms and the renovation of three already in place. Purchasing adequate vehicles for physicians — off-road vehicles and boats with medical equipment — is another topic under consideration. ‘Infrastructure is vital, but one of the most important components of the health system is the medical staff. Therefore, we want an extended programme for the permanent training of all the personnel in this field, according to their specific qualifications; the programme should be adapted to its target area, namely the Danube Delta or the terrace area,’ the Tulcea County Council Chairman Horia Teodorescu declared.

Tulcea County Council Chairman, Horia Teodorescu
Photo credit: (c) Luisiana BIGEA/ AGERPRES ARCHIVE

Taking into account the dynamics of agriculture and the county specific, authorities think that the financial planning needed over 2014-2020 should focus on the modernization of farms, on encouraging youth to settle in rural areas, and on extensive investments in the infrastructure. The ITI programme should allocate 40 million euros to investments in tangible assets; some of it would go to the irrigation infrastructure vital for agriculture. Six million euros are directed to fruit growing. Overall, ITI is expected to get 180 million euros from the Ministry of Agriculture only.

The European financial instrument is not restricted to remote communes in the Danube Delta; it also covers the administrative and territorial units in its immediate vicinity, with a total of 34 communes and towns in Tulcea and Constanta counties benefitting from the incoming funds. ITI should start operating next year, and the projects aimed at communities within the Reserve would no longer compete with the ones of other counties. The success of a financial instrument that could turn Tulcea Conty into a model for Romania relies on the seriousness of the public servants involved in the strategy, on the steadfastness of county authorities, and on the correct understanding of the situation of people and of nature in the Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve.AGERPRES

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The great biodiversity of Macin Mountains, the oldest ones in Romania, and of the Danube Delta Biosphere reserve, the youngest European land, next to cultural variety make Tulcea County (eastern Romania) unique in the world.


Just like some crafts preserved in certain communities, the history of some traditions remains a mystery. One sure thing: they are pre-Christian; they have updated and survived throughout the historic ages. The celebrations of calendar events have turned into holidays for all the community members.

The Mosoaie (a name seemingly meaning ‘old women’) is a unique tradition in Romania, preserved in the village of Luncavita. Since 2013, it has been included in the Calendar of Romanian Village Holidays. Mosoaies’ cowbells are first heard on the night of December 6, St. Nicholas’ Day, kicking off the winter holidays. Wearing sheepskin coats with the fleece out, cowbells on their belts, and masks, the Mosoaie are accompanied by bands of carol singers; they reach every household, or those assigned to them, depending on the tradition of dividing the village into bands, according to the family, the clan, and the girlfriend of a member group. The feast culminates on Christmas Eve, when the Mosoaie pass through the whole village and climb on the central stage of Luncavita.

This is the most archaic Christian practice for locals, Luncavita Mayor Stefan Ilie mentions. The masks, the cowbell noise and the whip cracking are meant to cast out evil and misfortune who try to take over the old year’s end and contaminate the new year about to come.

On Christmas Day, Megleno Romanians in Cerna Village still use to ignite a big oak trunk, called the ‘botnic’, ‘Dedu Botnic’, ‘babnic’ or ‘but’, which is then left to slowly burn until the Baptism of the Lord, celebrated in January, when it pulled out from the fire, relates Dumitra Petrica, President of the Altona Association. The tradition symbolizes the rebirth of divinity; in the nearby village of Izvoarele, Greek locals used to climb on top of the Consul Hill to light a fire.

‘These customs are still practiced on a smaller scale, because tradition must be observed. The meaning is the same, even if nowadays fire is lit in the courtyard,’ the First Deputy President of the Greek Community of Tulcea County Petre Marinescu, a native of Izvoarele, told AGERPRES.

Christmas and New Year habits are found among all the populations, ethnographer Steluta Parau explains. Mask dances are preserved both among Romanians and Ukrainians — the ‘melanka.’

Wishing well with ‘sorcova’ — a decorated twig, used to gently hit the hosts, or pretend to, while singing specific songs, early on New Year Day — is practiced by Romanians, Ukrainians, and Aromanians alike. ‘I could mention some specifics of these traditions: Ukrainians carolling on Christmas Day, not on Christmas Eve, when they have ‘vecera’ [traditional supper]; or the absence of secular carols among the Lipovan [Russian ethnics in and around the Danube Delta],’ Parau details.

On the Baptism of Lord Day, tradition wants attending religious services and blessing horses; horse races follow in many Romanian villages. In Izvoarele, the Greek community has different customs; the Theophany marks a three-day celebration. After the divine service and the horse race, groups of young men led by the ‘dragoman’, the only married man in the group, visit the household of last years’ newlywed and sing songs with dedicated lyrics.

The day is called the Groom’s Bathing, reminding of the walk of the last year’s bridegroom from one well to another, until the carollers got a deal on their reward.

Next comes the Brides’ Day, when the godmothers are actually celebrated; the third day is the Old Women’s Day, dedicated to midwives. No one is allowed to offend women who drank too much on this day.

Lipovan Russians attach special significance to the day before the Easter Lent (equivalent to the Western Christian tradition of Shrove Tuesday or Mardi Gras), the ‘Maslenita’ or the Cheese Week, a secular celebration still held in northern Dobrogea as a merrymaking occasion.

According to Andrian Ampleev, Chairman of the Tulcea County Organization of the Lipovan Russian Community of Romania, the week begins with the meeting day; the second day is dedicated to fun; the third is the delicious day; feast day comes fourth; mother-in-law’s night ends the fifth day; sister-in-law’s night is sixths, and the week ends on Sunday, the forgiveness day. ‘The gifts offered over this week are full of significations and joy. For instance, if the mother-in-law is not happy about her son-in-law, she would not cooks special meals,’ Ampleev details.

Easter, Christmas and New Year are above all religious holidays for Lipovans. The community members go to church wearing traditional suits. The first day of each of these holidays is dedicated to family. The ‘starets’, Russian word for the paterfamilias, sits down first at the table. He is joined by the rest of the family, and then says grace. Like for other ethnic groups, some holiday meals have magic significations attached.

On the Saturday before Palm Sunday, Greeks in Izvoarele honor the tradition of ‘Lazarel’, meaning Little Lazarus. Female carollers lined up in age order wear blue or red velvet suits and white aprons with a ‘zunar’ — a metal belt; young girls also wear white headscarves decorated with silver flowers and rings.

Greek and Romanian language lyrics of the songs evoke Lazarus’s death; according to Tulcea County ethnographers, the ritual wailing are meant to ensure his resurrection in the form of flora. When the song is close to its end, the leader of the young girls group — the ‘buianci’—lays a napkin decorated with embroidered flowers on the host’s shoulder; when the carol is over, the host wishes the girls happy holidays and returns the napkin with a couple of bills folded in it. The girls then get fresh eggs for Easter and a sieve with a flour plate inside, to prepare cakes.

The ‘buianci’ throws the sieve in the courtyard, and the way it falls tells the host how the year will be — good, if the sieve is facing up, and less prosperous, if it felled face down.

Saint George’s Day, celebrated according to the ‘Old-Style’ (Julian calendar), is the day when last years’ new-borns are ritually stolen. The ‘kidnappers’ then bathe them in water with money — bidding them richness, and flowers — calling for nicely growing, and dress them in new clothes before returning them to their parents; the latter respond with presents to those who return their precious babies.

The ‘Kurban’ custom marks the end of the New Year holidays; each family sacrifices a lamb and invite friends and relative to taste the dishes prepared from it.

During the Easter Lent, on Saint Theodore’s Day, the village of Cerna had a Bulgarian tradition observed until 1940, when Romania and Bulgaria exchanged populations in Dobrogea (southeastern Romania; it includes Tulcea County) and the neighbouring province of Cadrilater (the Quadrilateral, sometimes called Southern Dobrogea — or Dobruja, in northeastern Bulgaria).

‘In 2013, in a folk festival in Nova Cerna (New Cerna) in Bulgaria, I have met relatives of people who lived in Cerna before World War II; they had fond memories of our places, and especially of the horse races back then. It was called the ‘Cosia’; it was held on Saint Theodore’s Day, on seven kilometres; the winners were awarded beehives, calves, sheep, horseshoes, or harnesses,’ the Altona Association President Dumitra Petrica recalls.

Therefore, the tradition was revived last year, after 73 years of interruption, with the support of the municipal authorities and of the Macin Mountains National Park Administration; Cerna became the host of folk events, local product fairs, and of the horse race, to be held at the beginning of each tourist season.

Aromanians, who call themselves ‘Armani’ or ‘Machidoni’, used to be ‘carvanari’, carrying precious freight in caravans from Constantinople to western Europe, or shepherds, living in the mountains from spring to autumn, says Sterica Fundulea, the president of this community in Tulcea County.

On the day of Saint Demetrius, patron of shepherds, Aromanians descended for winter to the Thessaly plain and around the Aegean Sea; the moment was marked by celebrations involving dances, songs, and various rituals.

‘One of the books dedicated to the Armanis’ way of living reads, ‘When they descended with their flocks from Xirulivad for winter, the whole plain used to echo with sheep bleating, with sheep bell sounds, and with barking of big, long-haired dogs.’ The passing of flocks itself was a savage opulence show, watched by town dwellers who got in the open to see Armanis’ sheep. As transhumance is no longer practiced in the Balkans, only the holiday remains, ‘ Fudulea recites.

The International Shepherd festival is held every year in May, in the village of Sarighiol de Deal; the town of Tulcea also hosts some folk shows of the festival. Exhibitions of specific items of the traditional trade accompany the event; guests are offered traditional food.

The ‘Hidrellez’ is a pre-Islamic holiday celebrated by Turkic people from immemorial times. For them, the 6th of May is the beginning of a new season — the summer; farmers get their animals out of the stables, which thei clean and smoke against the ‘evil eye.’ A couple of handfuls of what grains poured on the window sills on this day were supposed to bring abundant crops. Children used to rub themselves with garlic to keep bad dreams away. ‘Kalakay’ — small breads prepared by housewives the day before — are rolled down from a hill to forecast the fate of the years’ crops.

During the next morning, after the divine service, the housewives milk the cows and sheep, and pour the milk on the stable door sill to bring even more of abundance. The youth have to gather every flammable item and prepare a fire near the mosque. The village elder lights the fire after the service, and he is the first to jump through it for purification. Women jump last, when flames are down. Traditional ‘Kures’ Tatar wrestling follows. Girls sway on swings decorated with flowers; women go to cemeteries to honour the dead. The afternoon meal, served outdoors, gathers the whole family.

Irrespective of their populations, no matter how remote or promoted their communities are, all the ethnic minorities in Tulcea County preserve their traditions along the year and those related to the cycle of life; there are Rroma, Ukrainians, Germans, Turks, Lipovan Russians, Tatars, Serbs, Slovaks, Bulgarians, Greeks, Italians, Jews, Poles, Armenians, Csangos, Macedonians, and Hungarians. The multicultural character in Dobrogea is visible in dwellings’ features, traditional suits, gastronomy, legends, dances, and songs.

‘A couple of years ago, we have organized a traditional event, the Carnavale, specific to the Italian community in Greci; a guest from Italy was deeply moved by songs he hadn’t heard since his childhood, when his grandmother used to sing to him,’ the Greci Italian Community President Sorin Vals recalls.

Artist Grigore Lese, after a documentary visit to remote villages in the terrace region of Tulcea County in 2007, told AGERPRES, ‘It was an extraordinary experience to meet six men of Caugagia singing traditional polyphonic songs. It is a valuable culture that could make us famous throughout Europe.’

These are just a few reasons for the authorities to host public events each year; for instance, the Children’s International Folklore Festival ‘The Golden Fish,’ hosted in Tulcea in August. It confirms once more the county’s fame of a miniature Europe. AGERPRES

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Learning to row and paddle since childhood, with the Danube and the Delta’s canals as their playground and food source somehow explains the 35 world and Olympic champions and vice champions of kayak and canoe sprinting born in Tulcea County (eastern Romania).


Other sports have their legends, too; in the past, Tulcea County has hosted many national and international athletic competitions. Stan Gheorghe’s book ‘Pages of Tulcea County sports history’ underlines the importance of the foundation of the European Commission of the Danube (CED) in 1856; it contributed to the development of sports in the region. According to this source, CED and the Romanian Royal Yacht Club organized what appears to be the first Romanian regatta in 1887 in Sulina, the easternmost town of Tulcea County, at one of the Danube’s mouths at the Black Sea. Seven years earlier, the town of Tulcea, the county seat and back then a free port, held extensive sailing and fishing rowing boat races and swimming contests across the Danube. Romania’s first long-distance swimming contest on the Danube was held in 1912 between Ghecet and Macin. Between 1952 and 1970 (with interruption between 1960 and 1968), the Very Long Distance Kayak and Canoe Race was held between Corabia (some 600 kilometres upstream) and Sulina. From 1975 through 1986 the town of Macin hosted international Greco-Roman wrestling events. Balkans’ boxing championship of 1977 was held in Tulcea; Romania got 7 champion titles. Tulcea also provided the venue for the 2005 qualification matches for the Men’s European Volleyball Championship and for the first international minifootbal matches of Romania, in 2011.

Tulcea County natives Dumitru Alexe and Simion Ismailciuc won the gold medals of the 1000 meters canoe sprint in 1956, in Melbourne. Vasile Daba, born in Jurilovca in 1956, was the first Romanian Olympic champion of kayak; the first to see his paddle break during the qualification race for an Olympic semifinal was Ivan Patzaichin of Mila 23. He went on with the shaft, crossed the line and went on to gold. When journalists asked him what he felt when the incident occurred, Patzaichin answered, ‘in a split second, I thought of Mila 23 and I decided to give my best to get to the finish line.’ His Olympic titles kept coming; he ended being champion 30 times at the Games and at World Championships, as recorded in the aforementioned book. Nicolae Fedosei faced the same problem. After finishing first with team Romania at the World Championships of Tampere (Finland) in 1983, his paddles began breaking one week before the next years’ competition. ‘The team’s carpenter reassured me saying he got a new lot of paddles. Then old Costica kept assembling two or three paddles a day; they broke upon the first start, and he began panicking about the chances that I break all the 20 pieces he got. After the first 15, he mounted a reinforced one, three or four hundred grams heavier, which I used for the race,’ sports reporter Ioan Eugen Diaconu quoted Fedosei in 2001.

Ivan Patzaichin is the only former champion of Tulcea involved in kayac and canoeing activities. After his retreat in 2010, he founded the Ivan Patzaichin — Mila 23 Association, linking his name to his native village in the Danube Delta. ‘I have always been and I still am very strongly bounded to the Delta, my birthplace, the place where I learned to row and paddle and where my respect for man and nature was built. I wish Rowmania [his brand for promoting ecological tourism] help the Delta become the queen of European ecological tourism as soon as possible. Therefore, most of our activities are dedicated to this region, to help communities identify the best solutions for developing local economy,’ Patzaichin said.


Another goal of his association is to involve children in athletic activities, all the more that the commune of Crisan alone gave 23 world and Olympic champions of rowing and paddling disciplines, then not a single Romanian champion for 15 years came from the Delta. Moreover, many locals now see rowing as humble work. This is the context for approaches in collaboration with the Tulcea County Council and the Municipality of Tulcea to set up the first Olympic canal for rowing competitions in Romania, which would also be the first ecological rowing canal in the world. It is planned on a length of 2,400 meters, 400 meters wide, on an area undergoing renaturation, near the town. It would be dedicated to professional athletes. Until works are completed, Delta’s visitors are invited each year between August 30 and September 1 to the International Rowing Boat Festival — Rowmania Fest, hosted by the town of Tulcea. It is a unique event in Eastern Europe and a platform for the recovery of rowing boat tradition, combining sports and open air activities with show and outdoor events.

Elena Fidatov Moruzov is a living legend of Tulcea athletics. World champion of half marathon with the Romanian team in Oslo (Norway) in 1994, and in Monbeliard (France) in 1995; European champion with Romania’s cross country team in Alnwich (UK) in 1994; her and her colleagues’ performances put Tulcea on the map of Romanian athletics. Another name in Romanian athletics, Ilie Floroiu, was born in 1951 in the village of Izvoarele; he competed for Farul Constanta club, defeating the best long-distance runners of his years; two of his national records, on 5,000 and 10,000 meters, set in 1978, still stand. Maybe the athletes of the Turcoaia chapter will beat them one day.

The sports history in Tulcea County would be incomplete without Dumitru Manea’s performances in Greco-Roman wrestling — bronze at the World Championships of Katowice (Poland) in 1972.

Team sports also made Tulcea County’s pride. The men’s volleyball team was among the favourites, playing the 1st division between 1975 and 1985. It returned in the top league in 1991 and stayed there until 1995, when coach Alexandru Stanciu retired. Its second comeback occurred in the 1999-2000 season, and Deltacons team became vice champion of Romania next year. In 2002-2003, the team was champion for the first time, a title it defended over the next season, when it also played the final of the Top Teams Cup, European club’s second high competition. Deltacons was the first men’s team to reach this level since the introduction of the Final Four tournament in the early 1990’s.


One of the most elegant fighters in the 1930’s boxing was Aurel Toma, styled ‘The Champions’ Nightmare’; he was born on July 30, 1911 in the town of Babadag, in Tulcea County. He was the first Romanian boxer to enter the ring of New York’s Madison Square Garden, and the only one to build himself a professional career in the United States. In 1938, he terminated the carer of Scotsman Benny Lynched, a world and European flyweight champion whom no one else had knocked out. Toma’s record in America — 19 wins, 9 losses, 4 draws — is unique among Romanian fighters. His name is now on the frontispiece of the sports hall of his native town; since 2013, Babadag holds an annual competition named after him, to honour his memory.

Other disciplines also achieved remarkable results on national level, with Tulcea County juniors honourably competing in domestic and international competition, though many of them are members of athletic clubs throughout Romania. An athlete’s performances equally require their own perseverance and best judgment, their teachers’ qualities, and training conditions. Many youths of Tulcea got what it takes to become great, but only time will tell how many of them will find the passion and wish to outdo their masters, adding to the sports’ — or other professions’ — legend.AGERPRES

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Out of the over 25,000 species of fish worldwide, some counting for more than 450 million years of age, 300 could be seen in Europe and 135 in the Danube Delta, part of which at the Danube Delta Ecotourist Museum Centre in Tulcea County (Eastern Romania).


As regards some species, a non-capturing ban is in force, yet one third of the total of the fish species with the Danube Delta according to the Tulcea authorities has been and still is economically capitalized through commercial fishing.

Even those we believe we know everything about and cannot offer big surprises do have specific particularities, according to the Teodor Buliga’s “Danube Delta” book.

The carp or Cyprinus carpio, the standard fish of the most spread vertebrate family in the world, is one of the fish species with a very sensitive hearing, therefore no fisherman should wonder when he doesn’t catch any carp if plodding on the banks or making strong noises in the boat. In addition, they are a weather changes’ proper flag, the Danube Delta’s experienced fishermen knowing that when the specimens of this species emerge a storm is about to come. In reality, the carp needs air to even pressure of its own body with the outside.

The crucian or Carassius vulgaris is one of the world’s two species of fish whose females need not spermatozoon exclusively from the crucian in order to reproduce themselves. It looks like the sperm of other species could start the division of the ovule resulting in a totally female’s population. The phenomenon is called gynogenesis and it generates specimens which borrow characteristics from other species, the hybrids between crucians and carp never being a rare thing. Moreover, the crucian specimens captured last 24 hours outside water considering the water temperature is low.

The perch or Perca fluviatilis, the most numerous species of the Danube Delta, seems to be the most greedy fish as well. Its favourite prey consists of small fish, and in the above-mentioned work the author mentions he found often perches swimming with fish as large as them hanging over their mouths!


The European catfish or Silurus glanis or the pond’s pig is the largest freshwater fish in Europe and among the largest 20 fish in the world. The catfish skin lacks scales, yet it’s very thick, as it is so resistant it could be used in leatherworking. Complex nerve endings are on its entire skin capable to identify any being close to it, the tiniest abnormalities of the water flow, and the alteration of the water’s chemical composition. The performing receptors are on its tail as well, and one moustache senses fine differences in the chemistry of the water against the other moustache. Of all the fish in Romania, except for the sturgeons, the catfish reaches the longest dimensions, yet the species is harder to find in the natural waters.

The pikeperch or Lucioperca, one of the most wanted fish in the Danube Delta, is big, round-eyed, glowing in the light due to a layer of cells which reflect the light, by amplifying it. This characteristic is also seen at mammals and about that there is a legend saying that the pikeperch has nocturnal vision. Unfortunately for the fishermen, several studies say the pikeperch is more active during daytime.

The pike or Esox lucius or Northern pike is one of the species until now never domesticated. Researchers have agreed that the sense of touch given by the numerous cutaneous nerve endings perceiving the aquatic environment vibrations is guilty for the attacks on prey. The maximum density of the sensors is recorded on its head, while preys are captured only if moving. This situation makes the pike one of the few species not yet domesticated. To note is that in the world of the pikes the cannibalism phenomenon is a fact that helps the species to balance its population hence there will never be an over-population of the specimens of this kind.


The small roach or Rutilus rutilus lives in large schools of fish, yet as it gets larger it becomes more lonely, gathering only when it reproduces or to winter. In the rivers, it is silver-coloured, rusty in the ponds and red-brown in the lakes. Its fins are bluish, and its life span is up to 100 years.

Six of the species reported in the Danube Delta come from other continents, as specialists call them allochthonous. So, the silver carp was brought from China at the beginning of the 18th century, and in Romania was for the first time reported in 1920, according to researcher Vasile Otel.


After 1970 in the Danube Delta the silver carp has emerged massively, as it currently holds 1st place in industrial fishing. Along with this species the sun perch or Lepomis appeared as it comes from North America and was brought to Europe at mid-20th century. The species related of Singer, Novac and Cosas were imported from China in 1960 and 1961 in order to populate some ponds, yet they’ve reached the natural environment next to a smaller species, the Pseudorasbora parva, imported accidentally. In 1984, a small species of the perch living in the Eastern area of the Black Sea has penetrated the Danube Delta, a numerous population existing in the Razim-Sinoie lakes’ complex.

Besides the economic interest of the professional fishermen and sportsmen, the fish resource is also the object of the researchers, the sturgeons being labeled since 1909 by Romanian scientist Grigore Antipa as the most interesting fish scientifically.

The fossil species of this family are known for over 200 million years, so that present day sturgeons are known as ”living fossils”. Currently all over the world some 26 species of sturgeons are known, six of which being reported in Romania as well at the beginning of the past century.

It seems that initially these species were of freshwater or estuary, but the long of the way as they were looking for food they have adapted the sea life where they spend most of their time. According to researchers, the fact that during the reproduction period the specimens of this family ascend some streams or rivers is the proof that sturgeons were freshwater species.

Since the beginning of the ?60s, the Acipenser sturio (sip) and Acipenser nudriventis (viza) used to be species very rare or even extinct, so that currently in Romania only four species of sturgeon could be seen: Huso huso (morun), Acipenser gueldenstaedti (nisetru), Acipenser stellatus (pastruga) and Acipenser ruthenus (cega).

Ever since 2006, the sturgeons’ capturing in Romania is banned for 10 years, the specialists being to decide if prohibition will last.

A special place in the sturgeons’ family is occupied by the albino sturgeons. Unlike their peers, the sturgeons of this kind are white, their eggs extremely valuable, as they are sold in golden small boxes. The price of a white caviar kilo surnamed ‘diamond’ reaches up to EUR 25,000, specimens of such species being seen by the Romanian researchers in the Danube. The albino sturgeons are very sensitive and never grow old, yet in captivity if all conditions created they have big chances to survive.

The species of the Danube Delta are a visitors’ attraction.AGERPRES

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  • Stejarul de 900 de ani, de la Braşov
  • Stejarul de 900 de ani, de la Braşov

Un străjer aproape milenar păzeşte comuna braşoveană Mercheaşa. Aşa spun localnicii despre cel mai bătrân stejar din ţară, care rezistă de 900 de ani oamenilor şi vremurilor. Iar în ultimii ani, bătrânul stejar a câştigat competiţii dedicate arborilor din ţară şi din Europa.

La 70 de kilometri de Braşov se ridică mândru stejarul care a prins vremea cnezatelor şi voievodatelor. Au trecut pe lângă el triburile nomazilor, dar şi timpurile.

Bătrânul din Carpaţi, numele pe care-l mai poartă stejarul, are o circumferinţă de 9,3 metri şi o înălţime de peste 21 de metri.

Trunchiul imens este cel care ne arată cât de bătrân este de fapt stejarul din Mercheaşa. Pentru a-l înconjura este nevoie de 9 oameni.

Stejarul nu a putut rămâne neobservat, astfel că în anul 2009 o asociaţie l-a trecut pe lista celor mai spectaculoşi copaci din ţară. Aşa a câştigat titlul de “Cel mai bătrân arbore din România”, în faţa altor 27 de copetitori.

Din vechea pădure de stejari de la Mercheaşa, de peste 300 de ha, singurul care a rămas în picioare de-a lungul secolelor este Bătrânul Carpaţilor.

Însă chiar şi cu promovarea din ultimii ani, puţini sunt turiştii care ajung la Mercheaşa să vadă această minune a naturii.

De când au aflat câţi ani are stejarul care se ridică falnic pe păşunea de la marginea satului, oamenii spun că înţeleg măreţia naturii.

Stejarul este comoara cea mai mare a comunei, aşa că reprezentanţii Ocolului Silvic l-au îngrădit, să îl protejeze de animalele care pasc în zonă.

Surs: yahoo news

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Socotit zeu în Panteonul românesc, Sâmedru este patron al iernii pastorale, sărbătorit la 26 octombrie, reprezentând moartea vegetației, venirea iernii și a frigului. A fost asimilat de popor ca Sf. Mare Mucenic Dimitrie, Izvoditorul de mir și făcătorul de minuni.

Pe lângă faptul că „încuie vara”, Sâmedru desfrunzește codrul și aduce zăpada pe pământ, patronează învoielile făcute cu jumătate de an în urmă la Sângiorz; astfel, depășește cadrul unei mici sărbători de toamnă, devenind un reper agrar și pastoral al anului țărănesc, scrie


În satele din țara Hațegului, proprietarii de cai tund coamele cailor tretini (până la 3 ani) ca să aibă păr frumos.

În ținutul Pădurenilor se obișnuia ca să se facă o cruce pe zidul acareturilor cu un tăciune rămas de la focurile de Sf. Dumitru, împotriva spiritelor rele.

În Bucovina, persoanele care vor semana usturoiul după Samedru vor avea parte anul viitor doar de pagubă.

În regiunea Olteniei, oamenii cred ca doar daca vei respecta toate tradițiile acestei sărbători vei fi într-adevar protejat de necazuri și primejdii.

În unele sate, bătrânele cred că-i primejdie să se pieptene pe păr de Sâmedru.

La sărbătoarea lui Sâmedru se credea că morții ieșeau din pământ, din morminte și se făceau moroi, vârcolaci și strigoi.

Iarna grea este prevestită la Sâmedru de abundența nucilor și a gutuilor, dar și de numărul mare al hârciogilor.

Cum e ziua de Sâmedru așa va fi toată iarna: de-i vreme aspră, va fi lunga iarna; de va fi vreme bună, toată toamna va fi lungă și frumoasă.

O alta previziune a iernii se realiza de către ciobani: când vor să afle dacă iarna va fi geroasă își aștern cojocul în mijlocul oilor și se uită să vadă ce fel de oaie se va culca pe cojoc: oaia de-i neagră, iarna-i bună, de-i albă, va fi geroasă.

Sursa: a1

Sfantul Mucenic Dimitrie, Izvoratorul de Mir

Sfantul Mucenic Dimitrie, Izvoratorul de Mir

Sfantul Mare MucenicDimitrie este cinstit pe data de 26 octombrie. A trait in timpul imparatilor Diocletian (284-305) si Maximian (286-305). Din viata sa, inscrisa in Sinaxare, aflam ca a fost fiul prefectului din Tesalonic. Dupa moartea tatalui sau, a fost  numit guvernator al Tesalonicului. Tinand seama de faptul ca Dimitrie nu a ascuns ca este crestin, a fost intemnitat. In vremea aceea, crestinii erau trimisi sa lupte cu gladiatorii. In aceste lupte, crestinii erau victime sigure. Potrivit traditiei, Nestor – un tanar crestin, cere binecuvantarea de la Sfantul Dimitrie sa-l omoare pe Lie, gladiatorul favorit al imparatului, pentru a pune capat luptelor sangeroase. Dimitrie il va insemna cu semnul sfintei crucipe frunte si ii va spune: “Du-te si pe Lie il vei birui, iar pe Hristos Il vei marturisi”. Prin rugaciunele Sfantului Dimitrie, Nestor reuseste sa-l strapunga cu lancea pe Lie. La finalul acestei lupte, imparatul Maximian porunceste ca lui Nestor sa i se taie capul, iar Dimitrie sa fie strapuns cu sulitele. Din trupul lui Dimitrie, nu a curs sange, ci mir tamaduitor de boli.

Sfantul Dimitrie a fost martirizat la Sirmium (Sremska Mitrovita, in Serbia), iar moastele sale au fost aduse in Tesalonic, pe 26 octombrie 413. Biserica actuala in care se afla moastele Sfantului Mucenic Dimitrie a fost construita la putin timp de la incendiul bisericii ridicate de guvernatorul Leontie, din anii 626-634. A fost transformata in moschee in anul 1493 si redata cultului crestin in 1912.

Cand vine vorba de Sfantul Dimitrie, grecii afirma ca trebuie sa vorbim de doi sfinti distincti: Sfantul Dimitrie de la Tesalonic, fiul guvernatorului, cinstit pe 26 octombrie si Sfantul Dimitrie de la Sirmiumdiacon care si-a dat viata pentru Hristos si este pomenit pe 9 aprilie. Nu stim daca aceasta ipoteza a grecilor este adevarata. Nu avem un raspuns final din partea cercetatorilor pentru aceasta problema.

Sfantul Mare Mucenic Dimitrie – ocrotitorul orasului Tesalonic

Sfantul Mare Mucenic Dimitrie este ocrotitorul orasului Tesalonic. Comunitatea crestina de aici a fost infiintata de Sfantul Apostol Pavel, in timpul celei de-a doua calatorii misionare. In ziua de 26 octombrie, in Tesalonic se organizeaza pelerinaje si procesiuni la sfintele sale moaste. Punctul culminant al sarbatorii il constituie deschiderea raclei in care sunt pastrate cinstitele moaste ale Sfantului Dimitrie. Racla este asezata in partea stanga a naosului, intr-un mic paraclis din marmura si impodobit cu fresce din viata sfantului. Episcopul care participa la aceasta sarbatoare, se roaga inaintea raclei, apoi sfinteste untdelemnul pe care il toarna peste mirul izvorat din sfintele sale moaste. Acest ulei sfintit unit cu mirul izvorat in chip minunat este daruit credinciosilor spre dobandirea sanatatii sufletesti si trupesti.

Sfantul Mare Mucenic Dimitrie in iconografie

In primele reprezentari, Sfantul Mucenic Dimitrie nu apare ca fiind militar, ci intr-un costum civil care apartinea clasei senatoriale. Amintim ca in anul 2000, David Woods a lansat o ipoteza legata de cultul Sfantului Dimitrie, in care sustine ca acest cult s-a dezvoltat prin mutarea moastelor mucenicilor militari Chelidonius si Emeterius, din Spania la Tesalonic. Guvernatorul Leontie va primi vindecare in urma sarutarii acestor moaste, in anul 413. Dorind sa afle cui apartin moastele, David Woods precizeaza ca s-a interpretat gresit inscriptia de la locul moastelor. S-a citit Demeterius in loc de Emeterius. Aceasta ipoteza, ar putea fi un raspuns la reprezentarea iconografica a Sfantului Dimitrie in chip de militar.

Pe o gravura in fildes din secolul al X-lea intalnita in Constantinopol, Sfantul Dimitrie este reprezentat ca soldat de infanterie. Insa, o icoana din secolul al XI-lea din Sinai il arata ca fiind civil.

O alta icoana din Sinai, datand din perioada cruciadelor, pictata in a doua jumatate a secolului al XII-lea, il infatiseaza pe Sfantul Dimitrie alaturi de Sfantul Gheorghe. Cei doi  sunt reprezentati calare, Sfantul Dimitrie pe un cal negru, iar Sfantul Gheorghe pe un cal alb. In timp ce Sfantul Gheorghe este reprezentat impungand cu sulita un balaur, Sfantul Dimitrie este infatisat invingandu-l pe gladiatorul Lie. Avand in vedere ca Sfantul Dimitrie l-a invins pe Lie prin rugaciune, nu direct in lupta, aceasta reprezentare face trimitere la razboiul nevazut.  In icoanele recente, mai ales din Grecia, in spatele Sfantului Dimitrie apare in fundal, Turnul Alb din Salonic.

Originea numelui Dimitrie

Originea numelui Dimitrie e greceasca si aminteste de vechea zeita Demeter. Crestinismul a impus numele masculin Demetrios, explicat uneori ca simplificare a lui demometer, “maica poporului” (demos = popor; meter = mama), pronuntat in neogreaca dimomitir. La noi, pe langa numele barbatesti Dumitru, Dimitrie (cu prescurtari ca Mitrea, Mitru, Mitu, Dima si diminutive ca Mitrus, Mitrut, Mitrel, Mitrica, Mitus, Mitel, Mitica, iar uneori Mitty, sub influenta occidentala), exista si numele femeiesc Dumitra (de unde Mita si alte forme diminutivate).

Troparul Sfantului Dimitrie

Mare aparator te-a aflat intru primejdii lumea, purtatorule de chinuri, pe tine cel ce ai biruit pe pagani. Deci, precum mandria lui Lie ai surpat si la lupta indraznet pe Nestor l-ai facut, asa Sfinte Dimitrie, pe Hristos Dumnezeul roaga-L sa ne daruiasca noua mare mila.

Adrian Cocosila

crestin ortodox



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Cel mai puternic laser din Europa și al doilea laser din lume, de un petawat, a fost inaugurat marți la Institutului Național de Fizica Laserilor, Plasmei și Radiației de la Măgurele.


“Avem astăzi deosebita satisfacție să asistăm la finalizarea și operaționalizarea unei infrastructuri de cercetare de vârf la nivel mondial: Centrul Integrat de Tehnologii Avansate cu Laser (CETAL), o infrastructură la cel mai înalt nivel mondial. Institutul găzduiește cel mai puternic laser din Europa, al doilea laser al lumii capabil să producă pulsuri laser de un petawat cu o durată de 25 femtosecunde”, a declarat ministrul delegat pentru Învățământ Superior și Cercetare, Mihnea Costoiu.

Potrivit acestuia, infrastructura CETAL este rezultatul unui proiect finanțat integral de la bugetul de stat cu 72 de milioane de lei în cadrul Programului național de cercetare-dezvoltare în perioada 2007-2013.

“Este unic în Europa prin gama echipamentelor și nivelul tehnologic de ultimă oră. Constituie o etapă esențială în realizarea infrastructurii ELI—NP, mai celebrul proiect care va cuprinde două lasere de 10 petawați”, a spus ministrul.

El a susținut că, odată cu inaugurarea CETAL, se vor deschide noi perspective pentru cercetări de vârf, cum ar fi aplicații în fizică, chimie, biologie, medicină, energie, știința materialelor, tehnologii ultra avansate de producție care vor avea un impact important pentru economia românească.

“Chiar dacă menționăm doar uriașul potențial în domeniul accelerării de particule pentru testarea componentelor folosite în industria spațială, generarea razelor X dure pentru aplicații industriale sau protonanoterapia în medicină, se conturează o paletă spectaculoasă de direcții în care cercetarea românească va străpunge cu siguranță barierele actuale. Noua generație de cercetători din România și generațiile următoare vor avea posibilitatea să deruleze în țară proiecte de cercetare ce presupun resurse care până acum erau apanajul a doar câtorva laboratoare din SUA, Germania, Marea Britanie, Coreea de Sud. CETAL va atrage, deja a realizat aceste lucru, echipe de cercetători din străinătate, inclusiv diaspora științifică românească”, a mai declarat Costoiu.

La eveniment au fost prezenți premierul Victor Ponta, președintele Academiei Române, acad. Ionel Valentin Vlad, ministrul Educației Naționale, Remus Pricopie, ministrul Apărării, Mircea Dușa, secretarul de stat în Ministerul Educației Tudor Prisecaru.

AGERPRES/(A — autor: Roberto Stan, editor: Florin Marin)

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Regle Mihai I (1927-1930; 1940-1947) s-a născut la 25 octombrie 1921, la Sinaia, și este fiul regelui Carol al II-lea (1930-1940) și al reginei Elena, principesă a Greciei.

Regele Mihai I, 27 octombrie 2011

Regele Ferdinand și Mihai, 1922

După decesul regelui Ferdinand (12/24 august 1865-20 iulie 1927), bunicul său, în condițiile în care prințul Carol, moștenitor al tronului, renunțase oficial la succesiune, Mihai I a devenit rege al României, la numai șase ani.

Regele Carol al II-lea și Principele Mihai la poligonul de aviație de la Băneasa, 1931

Din cauza vârstei, prerogativele demnității regale au fost asumate, în 1927, de o Regență (1927-1930), în componența căreia intrau unchiul regelui, principele Nicolae, patriarhul Miron Cristea și Gheorghe Buzdugan, președintele Curții de Casație și Justiție. Mihai I a studiat sub îndrumarea celor mai iluștrii profesori.

Regele Mihai I, Regina Mama Elena și Patriarhul Miron Cristea (membru al Consiliului de Regență), 1930

La 25 octombrie 1937 a primit gradul de sublocotenent în cadrul Batalionului I vânători de munte, iar la 14 septembrie 1940 a fost avansat la gradul de general de divizie. În 1941, cu prilejul aniversării zilei de 10 mai, a devenit mareșal al armatei române. În 1943 a obținut brevetul de pilot de avioane.

Regele Carol al II-lea și Principele Mihai trecând în revistă garda de onoare în fața Palatului Regal; 1939

Contrar angajamentului de a nu mai avea nici o pretenție asupra tronului, Carol al II-lea a revenit în țară, în 1930, proclamându-se rege. În această situație, lui Mihai i s-a conferit, la 8 iunie 1930, titlul de Mare Voievod de Alba Iulia. După o domnie controversată, Carol al II-lea a fost obligat să abdice, la 5 septembrie 1940, fapt care a determinat revenirea la tron a regelui Mihai I. Generalul Ion Antonescu și-a asumat atribuțiile de decizie în stat.

Începând cu 1943, în jurul regelui, s-a coagulat o opoziție antiantonesciană, pe fondul schimbărilor de pe fronturile celui de-Al Doilea Război Mondial.

Regele Mihai și Regina Mamă Elena in vizită la Monetăria Națională, 1945

La 23 august 1944, ora 22.30, prin Proclamația către țară, difuzată de posturile de radio, regele Mihai anunța “ieșirea noastră din alianța cu puterile Axei și imediata încetare a războiului cu Națiunile Unite”. În același timp, s-a anunțat formarea unui guvern de uniune națională care a fost însărcinat cu încheierea păcii cu Națiunile Unite: “din acest moment încetează lupta și orice act de ostilitate împotriva armatei sovietice, precum și starea de război cu Marea Britanie și Statele Unite”.

Comentând desfășurarea evenimentelor din august 1944 din România, radiodifuziunea britanică relata chiar în 23 august: “gestul României va avea efecte profunde”, iar postul de radio american din Europa, din aceeași seară, sublinia: “De acum înainte România este un nou aliat în tabăra Națiunilor Unite, ea manifestând voința de a se alătura la lupta care se duce împotriva inamicului comun”. Referindu-se la aceleași evenimente, Radio Paris conchidea: “Franța consideră că, prin urmările actului de la 23 August 1944, România a contribuit la reducerea duratei războiului cu cel puțin șase luni”.

În urma încheierii celui de-al Doilea Război Mondial, monarhul român a fost decorat cu ordinul Pobeda (Victoria), cea mai înaltă distincție militară sovietică și una dintre cele mai rare din lume ”pentru actul curajos al cotiturii hotărâte a politicii României spre ruptura cu Germania hitleristă și alierea cu Națiunile Unite’. Ordinul Pobeda a fost acordat doar de 20 de ori, mai multor lideri sovietici, dar și la cinci lideri străini, între care și regele Mihai I.

După 1944, treptat, atribuțiile regelui au fost reduse până când au devenit simbolice, ca urmare a strategiei puterii politice de la Moscova. În 1947, în condițiile ocupației militare sovietice și a eliminării de pe scena politică românească a partidelor politice tradiționale, PNȚ și PNL, monarhia a devenit ultimul obstacol în calea subordonării țării intereselor dictate de Moscova.

Regele Mihai trecând în revistă garda de onoare la Palatul Parlamentului, în stânga primul ministru Petru Groza, 1945

La 30 decembrie 1947, politicienii comuniști l-au forțat pe regele Mihai I să abdice și să părăsească țara, în ianuarie 1948, împreună cu familia. La scurt timp, acesta a făcut declarații privind abdicarea sa forțată. Reacția conducerii comuniste nu a întârziat să apară, în urma deciziei Consiliului de Miniștri din 22 mai 1948, Familiei regale i s-a retras cetățenia română și i s-au confiscat bunurile membrilor săi.

Regele Mihai I și Regina Ana

Mihai I s-a căsătorit la 10 iunie 1948, la Atena, cu alteța sa Ana de Bourbon Parma, din familia regală a Danemarcei. Altețele lor regale au cinci fiice: Margareta (n. 1949), Elena (n. 1950), Irina (n. 1953), Sofia (n. 1957) și Maria (n. 1964).

Familia Regală a locuit, până la sfârșitul anului 1948, la vila Sparta din Florența, locuința Reginei mamă Elena. Din 1949, regele Mihai I și regina Ana s-au mutat la Lausanne și apoi, în Marea Britanie, unde au locuit până în 1956, când s-au stabilit în Elveția la Versoix, lângă Geneva. A supervizat activitatea Comitetului Național Român, gândit ca un guvern al României în exil. A păstrat legătura cu refugiații români din străinătate și s-a adresat țării prin mesajele de Anul Nou, transmise de la postul de radio Europa Liberă.

În aprilie 1992, fostul suveran, împreună cu familia sa, au sărbătorit, pentru prima oară după 44 de ani, zilele de Paște la Mânăstirea Putna și au vizitat Bucureștiul, în cadrul unei vizite cu caracter privat. Totodată, de marile sărbători creștine și în funcție de angajamentele lor publice, Majestățile Lor participă la diverse manifestări organizate fie la Castelul de la Săvârșin, fie la Palatul Elisabeta din București.

Regele Mihai I și Regina Ana, alături de Principesa Margareta și Principele Radu, primesc un grup de colindători la Castelul de la Săvârșin

La 21 februarie 1997, prin Hotărârea de Guvern nr. 29, s-a revocat Decizia Consiliului de Miniștri din 22 mai 1948, Mihai I devenind cetățean român.

Regina Ana, Regele Mihai I, Principesa Margareta și Principele Radu

În cadrul unei ceremonii private, la 30 decembrie 2007, regele Mihai I a semnat noul Statut Dinastic al Familiei Regale a României, prin care a desemnat-o pe principesa Margareta drept succesoare dinastică și moștenitor la Șefia Casei Regale a României.

Ceremonia de conferire a distincției ‘The Freedom of the City of London’, regelui Mihai, din partea reprezentanților ‘Guild of Freemen of the City of London’, la Palatul Elisabeta

Mihai I este membru de onoare al Academiei Române (19 dec. 2007) și i-au fost acordate de-a lungul timpului titlul de Doctor Honoris Causa al Universității de Vest din Timișoara și de Cetățean de Onoare al municipiului Timișoara (21 mai 2009), titlul de Doctor Honoris Causa al Universității de Științe Agricole și Medicină Veterinară (USAMV) din Cluj-Napoca (7 octombrie 2009), medalia “Dr. Alexandru Șafran”, din partea Federației Comunităților Evreiești din România (13 octombrie 2010), distincția “The Freedom of the City of London” din partea Guild of Freemen of the City of London pentru că a scurtat “cu cel puțin șase luni” cel de-Al Doilea Război Mondial salvând mii de vieți (10 mai 2011), titlul de cetățean de onoare al orașului ceh Kromeriz acordat în semn de recunoștință pentru rolul pe care l-a jucat în cel de-Al Doilea Război Mondial, în eliberarea de sub ocupația nazistă a mai multor orașe (23 octombrie 2011).

AGERPRES/(Documentare-Irina Andreea Cristea; editor: Anca Pandea)

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La 25 octombrie este sărbătorită Ziua Armatei României. Cu această ocazie, va fi arborat Drapelul național la sediile instituțiilor militare, se va ridica Marele Pavoaz la bordul navelor militare maritime și fluviale și vor fi organizate ceremonii militare și activități comemorative în toate garnizoanele din țară, în teatrele de operații și în țările în care România are acreditați atașați ai Apărării. Militarii români din teatrele de operații sărbătoresc prin organizarea unor ceremonii militare și a unor activități culturale și sportive, la care vor fi invitați și parteneri din coalițiile multinaționale.


Armata României participă cu efective la diverse misiuni internaționale de combatere a terorismului, de sprijinire a păcii sau umanitare. Majoritatea lor activează sub egida NATO, al cărei membru România este din 29 martie 2004.

România a dislocat, în iulie 2002, în Afganistan, primul batalion de infanterie format din 405 militari sub comanda Forței Internaționale de Asistență pentru Securitate. De atunci, 26 de militari români au decedat în teatrele de operații, iar alți peste 140 au fost răniți.

Foto: (c) Adrian CUBA / AGERPRES FOTO

Prima acțiune de luptă a Armatei României în afara granițelor naționale, după Revoluția din 1989, a început la 8 martie 1996, alături de contingentele armatelor statelor membre NATO și partenere, în teatrul de operații din Bosnia-Herțegovina, cu Batalionul 96 Geniu. În anul 2000, Armata României și-a început participarea la misiunea NATO KFOR din provincia Kosovo, cu personal de stat-major și, ulterior, cu subunități specializate, de nivel companie. Iulie 2003 a marcat începutul contribuției militare românești la Operațiunea ”Iraqi Freedom”.

De Ziua Armatei României din 2010, a fost dezvelit, în Parcul Tineretului din Capitală, Monumentul Eroilor militari români căzuți la datorie, în prezența președintelui Traian Băsescu.


Armata României este instituția executivă în care românii au cea mai mare încredere, cu un procent de aproximativ 67%, conform unui sondaj realizat de INSCOP Research, făcut public în luna iulie 2014.


Ziua Armatei României a fost instituită prin Decretul nr. 381 din 1 octombrie 1959. 25 octombrie 1944, Ziua Armatei României, semnifică data eliberării totale a teritoriului național de sub ocupație hortysto-fascistă.

Eliberarea întregului teritoriu național s-a obținut prin lupta eroică a peste 525 000 de militari angajați nemijlocit în luptă, între 23 august și 25 octombrie 1944. Dintre aceștia au fost uciși sau răniți circa 58 000. Pierderile provocate inamicului s-au ridicat la 89 934 militari dintre care 76 275 prizonieri.

Eliberarea părții de nord-est a Transilvaniei nu a însemnat și încetarea luptelor duse de Armata României, care a continuat războiul antifascist alături de puterile Națiunilor Unite pentru eliberarea Ungariei, Cehoslovaciei și Austriei, până la victoria finală. ”Ajunse la frontieră din 1940, diviziile noastre — menționa comunicatul Marelui Stat Major din 25 octombrie 1944 — sunt gata de un nou efort și de noi lupte alături de marii noștri aliați, până la înfrângerea totală a forțelor germano-maghiare”.


În general, armatele din Occident nu sărbătoresc o dată anume ca zi a armatei. În aceeași tradiție se încadra și Armata României în perioada antebelică. Excepție de la această regulă fac Franța, care își serbează armata la 11 noiembrie, ziua armistițiului din 11 noiembrie 1918 dintre aliați și Germania, precum și Italia, la 4 noiembrie — armistițiul de la Villa Giusti din 4 noiembrie 1918.

AGERPRES (Documentare — Horia Plugaru, Andreea Onogea, editor: Marina Bădulescu)

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